Further Reading

Beito, David T. From Mutual Aid to the Welfare State. Chapel Hill, NC: U of North Carolina P, 2000.

Burrell, W.P. Twenty-five Years of History of the Grand Fountain of the United Order of the True Reformers. Westport, CT: Negro UP, 1970.

Fahey, David M. The Black Lodge in White America. Dayton, OH: Wright State UP, 1994.

Fine, Elizabeth C. Soulstepping: African American Step Shows. Chicago: U of Illinois P, 2003.

Foster, Helen Bradley. New Raiments of Self: African American Clothing in the Antebellum South. New York: Berg, 2001.

Graham, Lawrence Otis. Our Kind of People: Inside America’s Black Upper Class. New York: Harper Collins, 1999.

Hine, Darlene Clark, William C. Hine, and Stanley Harrold. The African American Odyssey. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000.

Ross, Lawrence C. The Divine Nine: The History of African American Fraternities and Sororities. New York: Kennington Books, 2000.

Skocpol, Theda, Ariane Liazos, and Marshall Ganz. What a Mighty Power We Can Be: African American Fraternal Groups and the Struggle for Racial Equality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2006.

Sterling, Dorothy, ed. We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Norton, 1984.

Trotter, Joe W. “African American Fraternal Associations in American History.” Social Science History 28:3 (Fall 2004): 355-66.

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