Mandy roe nakednakte starspreteens free picturebritney stevens hot ass xxxmature sex vidio freegeile bi sexadult buisnessvirgin sex nudexxx desprite housewivesakira porn actressteenies free moviesNorwegian teen nude beachdoes xkcd suckteen girls sticking things in vaginalong sex videoshot flashes not menopausemilfs free download3d xxx toon movies freealternative gay comicsrussian sex pixwrestling cfnmindian gooseberry and informationsext plwatch asylum nude scenehuge asian tittiesAnna lee porn nudebest pornstar galleryseattle mens chorus gaychildhood adolescentsexe momserotik bikiniphoto porno fille nuehomo ludens modern social sport theorist theorizingsexy maillot de bainhairy rebbeca kaneorgy ctasian sex celebritiesbrown hair to blonde hair makeoveradult court services of johnson countyblowjob noiseskendra wilkinson's vaginamoms have sex with theirpornstars on black cockhousewife pissingbrazil bang blondesebony ayes vidsteachers having sex students picsjapanese nip slipsannie sprinkle classic porn moviesfighe pelose video gratisXxx she malecomic

Midwifery 1800-1960

Throughout the nineteenth century and until the 1950s, African American midwives delivered nearly all black babies and many white ones. Before the Civil War every plantation had at least one midwife.

Midwives used their own birth experiences, medical knowledge, herbal remedies, patent medicines, and ritual incantations. They also drew on spiritual help from God. They believed they had received a spiritual call and were said to have “the gift” and to possess “mother wit.”

In 1913, Dr. Walter A. Plecker, Virginia’s first registrar of vital statistics, blamed midwives for a maternal death rate that was three times as high for African American as for white women. Plecker led the state bureaucracy in a public health campaign that eventually wiped out midwifery. In 1912 there were 9,500 midwives in Virginia; in 1950 only 1,500 had permits. By the end of the 1950s, African American midwives had nearly disappeared.

Exhibit Items

One Response to Midwifery 1800-1960

  1. Billie J. Davidson,Hunt says:

    I am researching family history and found that one of my ancestors was a midwife Her name was Rebecca Davidson Hurt. She may have been in Ashe Co. NC also. She is listed in my g-father Davidson’s household in the 1900 Virginia Census. She is listed as a cousin and age was 78yrs. She would have been born around 1822.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *